Our Planet, Our Earth: A Closer Look Into Earth Science

Every day scientists discover new and interesting facts about the planet Earth. Earth is the third from the Sun. Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are rocky planets.



Two-thirds of the planet are covered in water. Clouds create an illusion that the Earth is a blue planet with a snow outer space covering. Our rocky planet is actually covered by three rock groups: metamorphic rocks, igneous rocks and sedimentary rocks



Planet Earth from space. NASA



Earth’s crust is made up primarily of granite and basalt. The floors of the ocean are covered with basalt. Basalt forms where the crystal plates are separated allowing the molten rock to flow out of the earth surface and form the pillow basalt.

Basalt is rich in iron minerals and is a heavy rock that forms the longest mountain chains on the Earth. The continent base is made of granite. Granite consists of minerals that are lighter than basalt. They are the continents basement rocks. Granite covers about one-third of the earth surface






New science discoveries reveal that Africa and South America are moving apart at the Mid-Atlantic ridge. People that look at maps of Africa and South America often are of opinion that these continents look like that fit together like puzzle pieces.





People believed that both ocean floors of these continents were of the same age.  Science facts reveal d ocean floors to be much younger that those of the continents. Each time crustal plates separate and allow a new flow of basalt new ocean floors are formed.

Plate Tectonics theories explain that continents that were once unified are separating as fast as fingernails grow.


Ocean floors are younger than continents due to ocean floors being constantly created. The mid-ocean ridge system is basically a mountain chain running through oceans on the  Earth like baseball seams.

If all water on our planet dried up, the most prominent feature would be the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.  Earth’s outer layer is a solid layer called the lithosphere. It consists of continental crust, upper mantle and oceanic crust. The earth crustal plates flow like liquid and break apart like solids.



Science makes use of earthquake waves for studying the interior of the earth. Earthquakes provide both P and S waves. P waves travel through liquids, solids and gases. They deflect coming to boundaries where rock densities change. S waves travel through solids exclusively.travel through Earths body.

Scientists discover crust boundaries between mantles and crust of the earth as well as inner and outer cores of the planet through earthquake waves.